At least two studies have looked at SRTS safety outcomes on a broad geographic scale (state level). The first, conducted in 2008, was carried out by Gutierriez et al for the California Department of Transportation (CalTrans). This study focused on safety and mobility-related outcomes of the California SR2S program. Also in 2008, Blomberg et al examined the safety benefits of SRTS programs that began before the passage of SAFETEA-LU; these programs are called "legacy SRTS programs". Other studies have examined elements related to crash outcomes such as the safety behavior of pedestrians before and after certain SRTS treatments, and the speed of traffic both before and after an SRTS intervention. The degree to which these studies have been applied to other circumstances is not clear; however, what is evident is the large amount of interest from both researchers and practitioners in assessing potential safety benefits of SRTS programs.